Smoking And Reproduction
Cigarette smoking can have extensive negative effects on all phases of reproduction. It can impede the fertility of both men and women, result in high-risk pregnancy with increased probability of complications, and compromise the health of the child.
Studies have shown that women who smoke may find it more difficult to become pregnant, with their chances of success reduced as much as 40 percent per menstrual cycle. Even low levels of smoking – including secondary smoke – can have an effect on fertility. Male smokers often have lowered sperm counts and increased numbers of damaged or malformed sperm. Also, when by-products of nicotine are present in the semen of smokers, sperm motility is reduced. Continue reading